SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell receptors and insights into Infection, Immunity and Vaccine Design

Farah Nazir, Qingyu Cheng, Zunera Khalid, Tengchuan Jin


COVID-19 is a highly contagious novel epidemic that has exploded into the world's worst health problem in modern history. Since its outbreak in late December 2019, COVID-19, a global pandemic caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has infected millions of the world population and killed over a quarter of a million people around the globe. NGS (next-generation sequencing) is critical in various fields due to its rapid development. The present state of knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell receptors and their alleged role in infection and immunity leading to the target for therapeutic interventions is summarized in this article. S (Spike) glycoprotein's RBD (receptor-binding domain) is known to initiate viral fusion by attaching to its host receptor, ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme-2). T-cells are critical components of the adaptive anti-viral immune response as they eliminate infected cells and aid in selecting virus-specific antibodies. When severe COVID-19 individuals and healthy controls were differentiated, peripheral T and NK cell frequencies were significantly decreased, particularly for innate-like T-cells and diverse CD8+ T-cell subsets. However, the proportions of several activated CD4+ T-cell subgroups within the T-cell compartment were elevated and clonally dilated, including Th1, Th2, and Th17-like cells. The characterization of COVID-19 TCR (T-cell receptor) groups revealed that CD8+ T-cells recognize SARS-CoV-2 epitopes, including one with immune-dominant characteristics consequent from ORF1ab. These peptides are promising candidates for the development of a COVID-19 vaccine. Numerous prophylactic methods and non-pharmacological intrusions have been used to limit disease spreading, including rigorous infection control, social distancing, and patient isolation. Nevertheless, to limit the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and prevent its reappearance, vaccines conferring lifelong protection against the pathogenic agent SARS-CoV-2 and the emerging variants related to it must be developed.




SARS-CoV-2, NGS, ACE2, T-cell receptor, Immunity, ORF

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